Active consent. Participants indicate their willingness to participate by agreeing to a specific statement, and then are included in the study. This is the most common, and recommended, form of consent for research.
Written consent. Participants give their consent by filling out a consent form. Written consent guarantees active and explicit consent, thus offering the highest guarantees to the participant. It is most appropriate in studies that contain some level of risk, but also in many studies with no risk above those of daily life, when participants disclose personal or sensitive information, when they are exposed to deception, or any experimental treatment. Experiments and in-depth interviews in particular should consider written consent.
Please use the template informed consent formprovided in this site to obtain explicit, active written consent. If the participants are not considered legally competent, a parent or legal guardian has to give consent on their behalf. The form for parental or legal guardian consentgives explicit, active written consent for their charge to participate in research. Please be aware that once they become legal adults, children may revoke the consent given by a parent or legal guardian.
Implied consent. Participation in the study is proof of consent. This is acceptable for studies that provide anonymity, such as opinion surveys. A statement at the top of the instrument should clearly state that by filling it, the participant consents to participate, but does not wave any of their rights as research participant. Projects using implied consent should use the consent statementtemplate provided in this website, or a similar document, in their proposal. It provides active implied consent.