Active consent. Participants indicate their willingness to participate by agreeing to a specific statement, and then are included in the study. This is the most common, and recommended, form of consent for research.
Oral consent should be considered when obtaining explicit, active consent is essential, but the risk or discomfort involved in the process is too great to make written consent a valid option. Some populations, such as criminals, undocumented immigrants, or the homeless, may be placed at legal risk, or be suspicious of leaving a written trace, and refuse to participate. Or, the topic of the research may be highly sensitive, because it concerns behavior and attitudes that, even though legal, are socially condemned. Should the records be exposed, or a criminal investigation take place, researchers themselves may become liable. Oral consent is also a valid option for participants that are uncomfortable reading and writing, and may be too embarrassed by the written consent process to participate in research. In that case, the researcher should record the reading of a consent statement, and the clear answers of the participants indicating willingness to participate. The recording verifies informed oral consent.
Please use the template informed consent formprovided in this site to obtain explicit, active written consent. If the participants are not considered legally competent, a parent or legal guardian has to give consent on their behalf. The form for parental or legal guardian consentgives explicit, active written consent for their charge to participate in research. Please be aware that once they become legal adults, children may revoke the consent given by a parent or legal guardian.
The consent form template below will be suitable for many studies but may need alterations to be commensurate with your study and must be used in conjunction with the guidance given in Information Sheets & Consent Forms.