Separate consent forms have been designed to provide explicit, active written consent for photo, audio, and video recording. Capturing someone’s image is more invasive than other forms of research. By signing the photo, audio, video consent form,participants indicate that they are fully aware of the type of data that will be collected.
Passive consent. Participants are informed of the study, and are considered to agree to participate unless they specifically decline to be included in the study. This procedure is often used in schools that send forms to parents asking them to allow their students to participate in various studies or activities. Although it yields high participation rates, it should be limited to completely innocuous research (typically not involving minors). It is acceptable for participant observation (ethnographic) projects.
Explicit consent. Participants give consent by answering a specific question about their willingness to participate. This may be done in written (consent form) or oral form.
To guarantee that participants understand what they are consenting to, researchers should pay attention to the language they use. They should use the language that their target population will be most comfortable with. As a rule, they should refrain from using technical language and use an 8thgrade level of English. Depending on the methodology you are using, the population and topic you are studying, and the level of risk, informed consent may be implied or explicit, active or passive, and written or oral.
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