Passive consent. Participants are informed of the study, and are considered to agree to participate unless they specifically decline to be included in the study. This procedure is often used in schools that send forms to parents asking them to allow their students to participate in various studies or activities. Although it yields high participation rates, it should be limited to completely innocuous research (typically not involving minors). It is acceptable for participant observation (ethnographic) projects.
Explicit consent. Participants give consent by answering a specific question about their willingness to participate. This may be done in written (consent form) or oral form.
Implied consent. Participation in the study is proof of consent. This is acceptable for studies that provide anonymity, such as opinion surveys. A statement at the top of the instrument should clearly state that by filling it, the participant consents to participate, but does not wave any of their rights as research participant. Projects using implied consent should use the consent statementtemplate provided in this website, or a similar document, in their proposal. It provides active implied consent.
Written consent. Participants give their consent by filling out a consent form. Written consent guarantees active and explicit consent, thus offering the highest guarantees to the participant. It is most appropriate in studies that contain some level of risk, but also in many studies with no risk above those of daily life, when participants disclose personal or sensitive information, when they are exposed to deception, or any experimental treatment. Experiments and in-depth interviews in particular should consider written consent.
check consent form
consent order form
video consent form