Separate consent forms have been designed to provide explicit, active written consent for photo, audio, and video recording. Capturing someone’s image is more invasive than other forms of research. By signing the photo, audio, video consent form,participants indicate that they are fully aware of the type of data that will be collected.
Some participants, although not legally competent, are able to make judgment about their participation themselves. This is the case for teenagers and some mentally impaired individuals, for instance. The assent formgives them an opportunity to express their agreement to participate in research in writing, beyond the consent given by a legal guardian or parent. Although the assent is not legally binding, and does not dispense a researcher from obtaining consent from a parent or legal guardian, it is advisable as sound ethical practice. It reinforces the voluntary nature of participation.
Active consent. Participants indicate their willingness to participate by agreeing to a specific statement, and then are included in the study. This is the most common, and recommended, form of consent for research.
Passive consent. Participants are informed of the study, and are considered to agree to participate unless they specifically decline to be included in the study. This procedure is often used in schools that send forms to parents asking them to allow their students to participate in various studies or activities. Although it yields high participation rates, it should be limited to completely innocuous research (typically not involving minors). It is acceptable for participant observation (ethnographic) projects.